JEA 2018, 2(1), 4; doi: 10.22261/JEA.5GSNT8
Marine soundscape planning: Seeking acoustic niches for anthropogenic sound
1 Ocean Acoustics Lab, Alfred-Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), Am Handelshafen 12, 27570, Bremerhaven, Germany
2 Helmholtz Institute for Functional Marine Biodiversity (HIFMB), Carl von Ossietzky University, Oldenburg, Ammerländer Heerstrasse 231, 26129, Oldenburg, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 Nov 2017 / Accepted: 9 Feb 2018 / Published: 29 Mar 2018
Both marine mammals and hydroacoustic instruments employ underwater sound to communicate, navigate or infer information about the marine environment. Concurrent timing of acoustic activities using similar frequency regimes may result in (potentially mutual) interference of acoustic signals when both sources are within audible range of the recipient. While marine mammal fitness might be negatively impacted upon, both on individual and population level, hydroacoustic studies may generate low quality data or suffer data loss as a result of bioacoustic interference. This article pursues, in analogy to landscape planning, the concept of marine soundscape planning to reconcile potentially competing uses of acoustic space by managing the anthropogenic sound sources. We here present a conceptual framework exploring the potential of soundscape planning in reducing (mutual) acoustic interference between hydroacoustic instrumentation and marine mammals. The basis of this framework is formed by the various mechanisms by which acoustic niche formation (i.e., the partitioning of the acoustic space) occurs in species-rich communities that acoustically coexist while maintaining high fidelity (hi-fi) soundscapes, i.e., by acoustically partitioning the environment on the basis of time, space, frequency and signal structure. Hydroacoustic measurements often exhibit certain flexibility in their timing, and even instrument positioning, potentially offering the opportunity to minimize the ecological imprint of their operation. This study explores how the principle of acoustic niches could contribute to reduce potential (mutual) acoustic interference based on actual acoustic data from three recording locations in polar oceans. By employing marine soundscape planning strategies, entailing shifting the timing or position of hydroacoustic experiments, or adapting signal structure or frequency, we exemplify the potential efficacy of smart planning for four different hydroacoustic instrumentation types: multibeam echosounders, air guns, RAFOS (Ranging and Fixing of Sound) and tomographic sound sources.
Keywords: anthropogenic noise; soundscape planning; marine mammals; hydroacoustic instruments; polar oceans; acoustic ecology
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
Lillis, I.V.; Boebel, O. Marine soundscape planning: Seeking acoustic niches for anthropogenic sound. JEA 2018, 2, 4.
Lillis IV, Boebel O. Marine soundscape planning: Seeking acoustic niches for anthropogenic sound. Journal of Ecoacoustics. 2018; 2(1):4.
Lillis, Ilse Van; Boebel, Olaf. 2018. "Marine soundscape planning: Seeking acoustic niches for anthropogenic sound." JEA 2, no. 1: 4.