JEA 2018, 2(1), 5; doi: 10.22261/jea.tnw2np
Acoustic indices applied to biodiversity monitoring in a Costa Rica dry tropical forest
1 Universidad Nacional, Apartado 1350-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica
2 Universidad Nacional, Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 Sep 2017 / Accepted: 26 Feb 2017 / Published: 26 Apr 2018
Standardized methods for biodiversity monitoring are needed to evaluate conservation efforts. Acoustic indices are used in biodiversity assessments, but need to be compared to traditional wildlife methods. This work was conducted in the Santa Rosa National Park between June and November, 2015. We installed recorders and conducted bird point counts in twelve sampling sites. We compared acoustic indices (Acoustic Evenness Index [AEI], Acoustic Diversity Index [ADI], Acoustic Complexity Index [ACI], Bioacoustic Index [BIO], Normalized Difference Soundscape Index [NDSI], Total Entropy [TE], Median Amplitude Envelope [MAE], Number of peaks [NP]) with indices from bird point counts (Bird Abundance, Bird Richness, Bird Diversity and Bird Evenness), and discuss the utility of acoustic indices as indicators for biodiversity monitoring in tropical forests. ADI, ACI, BIO and TE presented a similar temporal pattern peaking between 5 am and 6 am; and an additional peak at 5 pm, except for ACI. These patterns were consistent with the daily biological rhythms. AEI, ACI, BIO and Bird Abundance were related to characteristics of younger forests (lower percentage of canopy cover) but NP, ADI, TE, Bird Diversity and Bird Evenness were related to characteristics of older forests (higher percentage of canopy cover and a lower number of patches). ACI was positively correlated to Bird Abundance and NP was positively correlated to Bird Diversity. ACI reflects biological activity, but not necessarily a more diverse bird community in this study area. This might be an indication of a strong acoustic competition, or several highly dominant bird species in younger forests. Furthermore, acoustic communities in tropical forests commonly include insects (cicadas) and frogs, which might affect resulting acoustic indices. A variety of methods are probably needed to thoroughly assess biodiversity. However, a combination of indices such as ACI and NP might be considered to monitor trends in abundance and diversity of birds in dry forests.
Keywords: soundscapes; soundscape ecology; acoustic indices; biodiversity; birds; dry tropical forest
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Retamosa Izaguirre, M.I.; Ramírez-Alán, O. Acoustic indices applied to biodiversity monitoring in a Costa Rica dry tropical forest . JEA 2018, 2, 5.
Retamosa Izaguirre MI, Ramírez-Alán O. Acoustic indices applied to biodiversity monitoring in a Costa Rica dry tropical forest . Journal of Ecoacoustics. 2018; 2(1):5.
Retamosa Izaguirre, Mónica I.; Ramírez-Alán, Oscar. 2018. "Acoustic indices applied to biodiversity monitoring in a Costa Rica dry tropical forest ." JEA 2, no. 1: 5.